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Kijapani Rahisi Easy Japanese
やさしい にほんご

Kurudi Orodhani / Back to Menu / メニューへ もどる
Maswali ya Kijapani / Quiz on Japanese / にほんごの もんだい
Mchezo wa Maneno / Number Crossword / ナンバークロス

1. Genkidesuka げんきですか

A: Genkidesuka?
A: げんきですか?
B: Genkidesuyo. Watashi Hiromito iimasu. Anatano namaeha nandesuka?
B: げんきですよ。わたし ひろみと いいます。あなたの なまえは なんですか?
A: Watashino namaeha Hadijadesu. Anata Suwahirigoga jouzudesune. Dokode benkyoushimashitaka?
A: わたしの なまえは ハディジャです。あなた スワヒリごが じょうずですね。どこで べんきょうしましたか?
B: Toukyouno daigakuseidattatokini, Tanzaniano senseini osowarimashita.
B: とうきょうの だいがくせいだったときに、タンザニアの せんせいに おそわりました。

A: Hujambo?
B: Sijambo. Mimi naitwa Hiromi. Jina lako ni nani?
A: Jina langu Hadija. Wewe unasema Kiswahili vizuri. Ulijifunza wapi?
B: Nilifundishwa na mwalimu Mtanzania, nilipokuwa mwanafunzi wa chuo kikuuni katika Toukyou.

A: What's up?
B: Nothing. I'm Hiromi. What's your name?
A: My name's Hadija. You speak Swahili well. Where did you learn it?
B: I was taught by a Tanzanian teacher when I was a student in college in Toukyou.


Elezo Explanation

genki げんき
(maana) -ema, -zuri, hali ya afya nzuri
(meaning) well, fine, healthy

Genkidesuka? Genkidesuyo. げんきですか? げんきですよ
Haya ni maneno ya kuamkiana. Maneno ya "genki-desu-ka" yaelea ni "mzuri"+"na"+(neno la swali). Maana yake ni "wewe (yeye, ninyi n.k.) mzuri?" au "huna (hana, hamna n.k.) maradhi?". Neno "desu" yatumika kuainisha kitu fulani, kama "ni" ya Kiswahili. Neno "ka" ya mwisho linatumika kuuliza swali. Sentensi hizi hazina maneno ya mtendaji. Wajapani hawatumii neno la mtendaji katika sentensi sana hasa mtendaji akijulikana ni nani anayetenda. Kwa hivyo maana yake "genkidesu" ni "mimi (wewe, yeye n.k.) nzuri."
These are the words of greeting. The words of "genki-desu-ka" can be resolved as "well"+"be"+"word of question". The meaning is "are you (is she, are they etc.) well?" or "healthy?". The word "desu" is used as a copulative word like "be" of English. The word "ka" of the end is used to ask a question. These sentences don't have subjects. The Japanese don't mention subjects in their sentences, specially when the doers are implicated from the context. And so "genkidesu" can mean "I'm (you're, she's, we're etc.) well.

watashi わたし
(maana) mimi
(meaning) I, me

Jina la Mtu /Personal Pronoun
mtu na idadi
person and number
mmoja
singular
wengi
plural
mtu wa kwanza
1st person
watashi
mimi
I, me
watashitachi
sisi
we
mtu wa pili
2nd person
anata
wewe
you
anatatachi
ninyi
you
mtu wa tatu (kike)
3rd person (female)
kanojo
yeye
she
kanojotachi
wao
they
mtu wa tatu (kiume)
3rd person (male)
kare
yeye
he
karetachi
wao
they

Hiromi ひろみ
(maana) jina la Mjapani wa kike au kiume.
(meaning) Japanese name for a girl or a boy.

iimasu いいます > iu いう (kusema/to say)
(maana) sema, ambia
(meaning) say, speak, talk

-to iimasu と いいます
Maana yake "-to iimasu" ni "husema kwamba -". Pengine inasemwa kumaanisha "inaitwa -". Kwa mfano, "Hiromito iimasu" inaelea "husema kwamba yule ni Hiromi". Maana ya yule ni mimi mwenyewe. Kwa hivyo, maana ya sentensi hiyo ni "mimi naitwa Hiromi."
The meaning of "-to iimasu" is "Somebody says that -". It's usually said when you mean "it's called -". For example, "Hiromito iimasu" is resolved as "somebody says that the person is Hiromi". In this case the person is me myself. So the meaning of this sentence is "I'm called Hiromi."

anatano あなたの
(maana) -ako
(meaning) your

namae なまえ
(maana) jina
(meaning) name

-no の
(maana) -a
Neno dogo "no" linaunda maneno mawili, kama vile "anatano namae" ni 'jina lako'. Neno hili liwaweza kutumiwa kwa majina ya mtu yote mengine na majina ya kawaida hali yanaundwa kama "A no B", maana yake 'B -a A'. Kwa mfano, majina ya mtu yalingana na neno hilo kama ifuatavyo.
(meaning) -'s, of
The affix "no" combines two words so "anatano namae" means 'your name'. This affix is used for all other personal pronouns and general nouns like "A no B" meaning 'B of A'. For example, personal pronouns with this affix will be as follows.

Jina la mtu lenye "no"/Personal pronoun with "no"
mtu na idadi
person and number
mmoja
singular
wengi
plural
mtu wa kwanza
1st person
watashino
-angu
my
watashitachino
-etu
our
mtu wa pili
2nd person
anatano
-ako
your
anatatachino
-enu
your
mtu wa tatu (kike)
3rd person (female)
kanojono
-ake
her
kanojotachino
-ao
their
mtu wa tatu (kiume)
3rd person (male)
kareno
-ake
his
karetachino
-ao
their

nan なん
(maana) nini. Jina la kuuliza. Neno hili la kawaida ni "nani". Lakini katika sentensi ya "-desuka", linaitwa "nan" badala ya "nani".
(meaning) what. An interrogative pronoun. This word is usually "nani". But in the sentence like "-desuka", it's shortened to be "nan" instead of "nani".

nandesuka なんですか
(maana) ni nini?
(meaning) what's it?

namaeha なまえは
(maana) jina ni. Neno dogo la "ha" ni neno la kuonyesha mtendaji katika sentensi. Neno "ha" hutamkwa kama "wa".
(meaning) name is. The affix "ha" shows the affixed word is subjective in the sentence. This "ha" is pronounced as "wa".

Hadija ハディジャ
(maana) jina la mwanamke Mwarabu.
(meaning) An Arabic name for a girl.

Suwahirigo スワヒリご
(maana) Kiswahili. Neno dogo la "ha" ni neno la kuonyesha mtendaji katika sentensi. Neno "ha" hutamkwa kama "wa".
(meaning) name is. The affix "ha" shows the affixed word is subjective in the sentence. This "ha" is pronounced as "wa".

Nchi, Watu na Lugha / Country, People and Language
nchi, mahali
country, province
watu
people
-a nchi, mahali
of the country, province
lugha
language
Suwahiri
Uswahili
Swahili
Suwahirijin
Mswahili/Waswahili
Swahili people
Suwahirino
-a Kiswahili
of Swahili
Suwahirigo
Kiswahili
Swahili language
Amerika
Marekani
America
Amerikajin
Mwamerika/Waamerika
American people
Amerikano
-a Marekani
American
Eigo, Amerikago
Kiingereza
English
Nihon
Ujapanii
Japan
Nihonjin
Mjapani/Wajapani
Japanese people
Nihonno
-a Kijapani
Japanese
Nihongo
lugha ya Kijapani
Japanese language

-ga -が
(maana) Neno dogo la "ga" ni neno la kuonyesha mtendaji kabisa katika sentensi. Kwa hivyo, maana yake "Suwahirigoga" ni 'Kiswahili ni'.
(meaning) The affix "ga" shows the affixed word is an absolute subjective in the sentence. So "Suwahirigoga" means 'Swahili is'.

jouzu じょうず
(maana) -zuri, hali nzuri hasa tendo fulani ni nzuri.
(meaning) well, good, specially a certain action is good.

jouzudesune じょうずですね
(maana) ni nzuri, sivyo? Neno dogo "ne" laonyesha sentensi hiyo itaonesha kutaka wasikilizaji kubaliana.
(meaning) is well, isn't it? The affix "ne" shows the speaker wants the listener to agree to it.

Nchi, Watu na Lugha / Country, People and Language
ka
kuuliza
interrogative
yo
kuamini
affirmative
ne
kubaliana
agreeable
jouzudesu
ni nzuri
is well
jouzudesuka?
ni nzuri?
is it well?
jouzudesuyo
nadhani ni nzuri
I'm sure it's well
jouzudesune
ni nzuri, sivyo?
is well, isn't it
Hiromidesu
ni Hiromi
is Hiromi
Hiromidesuka?
ni Hiromi?
is she Hiromi?
Hiromidesuyo
Mimi (yeye n.k.) ni Hiromi
I am (She is etc.) Hiromi
Hiromidesune
wewe (yeye n.k.) Hiromi, ndiyo?
you're (she's) Hiromi, right?

doko どこ
(maana) wapi, mahali gani. Maana yake "dokode" ni 'katika wapi'.
(meaning) where. The affixed "dokode" literally means 'in (at) where'.

benkyoushimashita べんきょうしました > benkyousuru べんきょうする (kujifunza/to study)
(maana) -lijifunza, -mejifunza
(meaning) studied, has studied

Toukyouno とうきょうの
(maana) -a Toukyou
(meaning) of Toukyou

daigakusei だいがくせい
(maana) mwanafunzi (wanafunzi) wa chuo kikuuni. Maana yake "daigaku" ni 'chuo kikuu' na maana ya "gakusei" ni 'mwanafunzi'. Kwa hivyo "daigaku"+"gakusei"="daigakusei". Tamko la "u" pengine halina sauti. Kwa hivyo, neno "gakusei" linatamkwa kama "gaksei" na "daigakusei" kama "daigaksei".
(meaning) university student. The meaning of "daigaku" is 'university, college' and "gakusei" means 'student'. So "daigaku"+"gakusei"="daigakusei". Japanese pronunciation of "u" sometimes becomes silent. So "gakusei" is pronounced as "gaksei" and "daigakusei" as "daigaksei".

datta だった
(maana) -likuwa
(meaning) was (were)

-tokini ときに
(maana) -lipokuwa. Neno la "-tokini" laundwa "toki" (maana yake 'wakati') + "ni" (katika, mahali pa). Hili neno linatumika katika sentensi mbili ambayo ya kwanza ni "-napokuwa hivyo, ni -". Maneno ya "daigakuseidattatokini" yaundwa kwa "daigakusei"+"datta"+"tokini" ambayo maana yao ni 'nilipokuwa (alipokuwa n.k.) mwanafunzi wa chuo kikuuni'.
(meaning) when -. The word of "-tokini" is the combination of "toki" (time, period) + "ni" (in, at). The word is always used in the two sentences of which the first means 'when it's so and so, -'. So the combined words "daigakuseidattatokini" are paraphrased as "daigakusei"+"datta"+"tokini" meaning 'when I (she) was a university student'.

Tanzaniano タンザニアの
(maana) -a Tanzania
(meaning) of Tanzania

sensei せんせい
(maana) mwalimu, walimu
(meaning) teacher(s)

-ni に
(maana) (tendwa) na, katika
(meaning) (done) by, in, at

osowarimashita おそわりました < osowaru おそわる (kufundishwa/to be taught)
(maana) -lifundishwa, -mefundishwa
(meaning) was (were) taught, have been taught

Kitendo/Verb
tendo lifuatalo la kisasa
connective form present tense
tendo la kawaida la kisasa
formal form present tense
tendo lifuatalo la kupita
connective form past tense
tendo la kawaida la kupita
formal form past tense
benkyousuru
kujifunza
to study
benkyoushimasu
-najifunza
study
benkyoushita
kulikuwa kujifunza, kumekuwa kujifunza
to have studied
benkyoushimashita
-lijifunza, -mejifunza
studied, have studied
osowaru
kufundishwa
to be taught
osowarimasu
nafundishwa
am (is, are) taught
osowatta
kulikuwa kufundishwa, kumekuwa kufundishwa
to have been taught
osowarimashita
-lifundishwa, -mefundishwa
was taught, have been taught


Kurudi Orodhani / Back to Menu / メニューへ もどる
Maswali ya Kijapani / Quiz on Japanese / にほんごの もんだい
Mchezo wa Maneno / Number Crossword / ナンバークロス